Types of arm prostheses

Types and operating principle of hand, wrist and forearm prostheses. Description of cosmetic, active, bionic and working prostheses. Functionality of state-of-the-art arm prostheses.

Types of arm prostheses

Types and operating principle of hand, wrist and forearm prostheses. Description of cosmetic, active, bionic and working prostheses. Functionality of state-of-the-art arm prostheses.
prosthetic arm
prosthetic arm
Prostheses by purpose
Functional: active prostheses that allow grasping. Controlled by various mechanisms. Can be in a cosmetic casing simulating the external appearance of the hand, or have a state-of-the-art technological design.

Cosmetic: perform only a passive decorative function.
By level of amputation
  • Finger prostheses;
  • Wrist prostheses;
  • Forearm prostheses;
  • Shoulder prostheses (and with exarticulation of the shoulder joint).
By operating principle
  • Body-powered (active, mechanical);
  • Myo-electric (bioelectric, bionic);
  • Working.

CYBI active (body-powered or mechanical) wrist and forearm prostheses

Active prosthesis is controlled using traction and is controlled completely by the efforts of the actual person without any electronics.

The operating principle of the mechanical prosthesis is very simple, therefore such prostheses are placed from the earliest age. In our company, the state-of-the-art CYBI active prostheses are made for children from age 2 with injuries at the wrist and forearm level.

The strong point of such a mechanism is the possibility of controlling the effort. When grasping, the user themself determines the compression strength, its speed and can sense resistance, when the wrist rests on the object.

Active hand prostheses

Bioelectric prostheses

Bioelectric, also called myo-electric or bionic prostheses are one of the most state-of-the-art and advanced hand prostheses. Based on the classification of the Russian Federation Ministry of Labor, they are called prostheses with external power source.

The myo-electric prostheses are controlled by signals emerging when the muscles contract that are read by EMG-sensors.

The stump-receiving socket has built-in myo-sensors catching the change in electrical potential. This information is transmitted to the wrist microprocessor, and as a result, the prosthesis performs a certain gesture or grasp.

Types of bionic prostheses

Cosmetic prostheses

Working prostheses
prosthetic arm
Cosmetic arm prostheses
The best cosmetic covers are made in the patient’s skin tone color with regard for the smallest details: moles, veins and palm lines are placed on the prosthesis.

Today, CYBI body-powered prostheses and INDY bioelectric prostheses can also be made with a removable cosmetic cover. Passive cosmetic prostheses are more often replaced with functional ones.
prosthetic arm
Working hand prostheses
The working prosthesis is designed to perform special actions. Such prosthesis could be equipped with a receiver for working attachments, e.g., for a hammer, wrench, scissors, chisel, screw driver clamp, etc.

There are special adapters for everyday work: for utensils, writing accessories, an iron, sewing machine, and objects needed for printing and drawing.

As in the case of cosmetic prostheses, the working prostheses are replaced with state-of-the-art body-powered and bionic prostheses the functionality of which permits solving of the main everyday household tasks. In the case of specific requests, disabled people can get several types of prostheses from the government.